An overview of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure and its components.
In my journey of preparing and clearing the OCI Foundations Associate 2020 Certification, I learnt lot of interesting concepts about OCI and cloud terminologies in general. I thought of putting this together as a summary of the key concepts of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. This will help people interested to take up this certification and give a general understanding of OCI. Source for this article is the detailed video tutorial given by Rohit Rahi from the OCI team.
Cloud computing is the usage of computing resources such as servers, data storage, and computing power over the internet. The computing resources are available based on demand and without human interaction.
Multi-tenant model is used where the resources are pooled to serve multiple users over a broad network. Resources can be accessed dynamically based on need, and users pay only for the resources consumed. These are the main highlights of cloud computing that has made it so popular and appealing to users.
The three cloud service models are Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS), Platform as a Service (PAAS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). This article focuses on discussing about Oracle IAAS, where the cloud provider in this case Oracle manages the core infrastructure such as data centers, network, and storage machines. The user manages applications, data, and operating system.
Core cloud concepts supported by OCI are:
- High availability — Cloud resources are always available and do not have single point of failure.
- Disaster Recovery — Enable quick recovery or continuation of service from any kind of downtime.
- Fault Tolerance — Ensure minimal downtime.
- Scalability — Support scaling of resources up or down (vertical scaling), in or out (horizontal scaling).
- Elasticity — Ability to quickly scale resources including VMs and storage.
- Pricing — Capital expenditure (CAPEX) spent for fixed assets such as physical infrastructure. Operational expenditure (OPEX) spent for operational cost such as utility and power.
The four main components that constitute the OCI architecture are:
- Region — These are geographical locations around the world where the cloud services are available.
- Availability Domain — These are isolated data centers located within a region.
- Fault Domain — These are logical data centers within an availability domain.
- Compartment — These are logical collection of related resources.
Though availability domains are isolated they are connected to each other by low latency, high bandwidth network. Each AD consists of three fault domains for high availability of resources. Resources placed in different fault domains do not share single point of failure. Compartments helps to isolate and control access to the resources in the cloud.
Some notable features of compartments are:
- Compartments can be nested up to six levels.
- Each resource can belong to only one compartment.
- Resources can be deleted or added to the compartment.
- Resources can interact with other resources in different compartments.
- Resources can be moved from one compartment to another.
- Resources from multiple regions can be in the same compartment.
- Budget is assigned for resources located in the compartment.
OCI services can be divided into five categories:
Compute Service -
OCI offers five types of compute services:
- Bare metal
- Virtual machine
- Dedicated virtual host
- Container engine
Bare metal offers just the physical server without any virtualization. Virtual machines offer the virtualization layer in addition to the server. In case of dedicated virtual host the user gets complete control of the VMs running on the host. In container engine user will be only managing the application as the OS also is managed by the cloud provider. Finally, in case of Oracle Function user is responsible for only the code and rest everything is taken care. The highlight of Oracle Functions is that user has to pay only for the resources consumed during the execution of the code.
Storage Service -
Oracle offers four types of storage services:
- Block storage — Data is stored as fixed size blocks. There is no metadata stored. It is a remote and network based storage. User can do periodic backup of the block volume. It can be manual or automated.
- Local NVMe — This is temporary storage that is attached to the compute instance. The data is not available once the instance dies, which is not the case in other types of storage.
- File storage — This is a hierarchical collection of documents organized into directories. It is a type of network storage that is highly durable. Backups can be taken as snapshots.
- Object storage — In this all kinds of data such as image, video, documents are stored as objects in a bucket. These are stored in single flat structure, without a folder hierarchy. Hence, data retrieval is very fast and even metadata is stored. It is highly scalable and commonly used to store Big Data, and unstructured data. In archive object storage rarely accessed data can be stored for long periods with less cost.
You can choose the required type of storage based on the type and volume of data, data durability, and performance.
Networking Service — A Virtual Cloud Network (VCN) provides networking capabilities in OCI. VCN is a software defined private network that is set up in OCI. It enables your cloud resources to securely communicate through the internet with other instances running in OCI or your on-premises data centers. Data is routed on the internet through public or private means depending on the type of network connection.
- Internet gateway provides connection between the VCN and the internet and its public connection.
- NAT gateway provides private connection to the internet as it blocks inbound connection from the internet.
- Dynamic Routing Gateway (DRG) provides secure connection between the on-premises environment and the VCN.
- Service gateway connects public OCI services such as object storage with the VCN in a secure way.
- Peering is a terminology used for the communication between VCNs.
Identity and Access Management — Identity refers to user who is requesting for access, and Access refers to type of permissions granted to the user or principal. Here principal can be an user or an instance. The first user in OCI is always the administrator who will provide access and permission to other users. Here a user has to belong to a group and each group needs to be associated with a policy. Policy will have details of the resources for which permission is given to the user. Policy can be attached to a compartment as it is a collection of resources. Authentication of the user is done in 3 ways. First is through the straightforward method of using username and password, second is through API signing keys, and the third is by using authorization tokens.
Database Service — The main objective of database backup is high availability and disaster recovery. OCI offers five different types of database services namely, Virtual Machine DB system, Bare Metal DB system, Oracle RAC, Exadata DB system, and Autonomous DB.
- VM DB system uses block storage that can be quickly provisioned.
- Bare Metal DB system leverages local storage that provides high performance.
- Oracle RAC enables user to cluster databases where same database is shared by different instances.
- Exadata DB system is a managed storage service suitable for transaction data.
- Autonomous DB is a self-driving, self-securing, and self-repairing service that supports CPU and storage scaling without any downtime. Two kinds of workloads are supported by Autonomous DB. One is Autonomous Transaction Processing (ATP). Another is Autonomous Data Warehouse (ADW).
Oracle data guard replicates databases to survive data corruptions or disasters.
OCI provides Shared Security model. Users are responsible for securing their data and Oracle secures the underlying infrastructure. Users are responsible for patching applications and operating system. Data safe is used to protect sensitive and regulated data residing in the Oracle cloud databases. Key Management or Oracle Vault encrypts storage and database services. Keys are stored on highly available and durable Hardware Security Modules (HSM). OCI also supports centralized key management where users can use their on-premises environment keys. The Identity and Access Management service supports Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). Federation support is provided where an identity provider manages user’s authentication. Web application firewall can be used to authenticate HTTP traffic. OCI also offers compliance certifications such as HIPAA.
OCI Pricing and Billing
OCI functions on pay as you go model. The user is charged only for the consumed resources. Consumption based pricing is the highlight of cloud services.
OCI offers three different pricing models:
- Pay as you go — Charge is based only for the resources consumed.
- Monthly flex or Universal credit model — Charge is based on a minimum threshold of $1000 and 12 months.
- Bring your own license — User can apply their existing on-premises Oracle license.
Pricing is based on resource size, type of resources, and data transfer. Oracle does not charge for ingress or incoming data. Outgoing data or egress is charged only for data transfer over public network and across regions. OCI pricing is uniform across all regions. Data transfer from cloud to on-premise is not charged. In OCI cost is tracked using cost tracking tags that can be added to resources. User can set a monthly threshold for expenditure so that it is easy to keep track of overshooting the budget. Daily usage reports are generated about user’s OCI consumption. OCI also offers several free services such as two compute instances, load balancer, and object storage that anyone can utilize.
OCI SLA and Support
Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a financially backed commitment to provide minimum level of service to customers. OCI offers SLAs for availability, manageability, and performance of resources. Availability also called as Data Plane is usage of resources. Manageability or Control Plane is administration of resources. Oracle Support is not available for free services. Paid users have to sign up for an Oracle Support account also referred to as My Oracle Support (MOS). They can raise support requests for queries related to user authentication issues and service limits.
This covers all the key OCI topics. There is much more to these concepts that can be learnt from https://learn.oracle.com/ols/learning-path/understand-oci-foundations/35644/75258.
Which statement is true about OCI (Oracle Cloud Infraestructure) and its core components? All OCI regions have three availability domains. Fault domains act as physical data centers within an availability domain.Which three statements are true about OCI? ›
Which three statements are correct about Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Compartments? Compartments can have sub-compartments. Compartments can be used for authentication services. Compartments are logical entities.Which statement is true for an Oracle cloud infrastructure OCI compute instance? ›
Which statement is true about the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Object Storage service? It can store a finite amount of unstructured data, analytical data, and rich content. It enables you to store or retrieve data directly from the Internet. It is tied to a specific compute instance.Which statement is true about OCI architecture and its components? ›
Which statement accurately describes an OCI Region? Each Availability domain has three Fault DomainsYou have subscribed to an OCI region, which has one a single availability domain. You want todeploy a highly-available application with two web servers and a 2-node database.Which statement is true about the OCI block storage service? ›
Which statement is true about the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Object Storage service? It enables you to store or retrieve data directly from the Internet.Which three storage options are available in OCI? ›
Storage In OCI - Block, Object (Standard & Archive), File, NVMe.Which three are capabilities of the Oracle cloud infrastructure OCI data Catalog service? ›
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Data Catalog includes capabilities to collaboratively define business terms in rich text form, categorize them appropriately, and build a hierarchy to organize this vocabulary.Which components are part of OCI identity and access management services choose three? ›
- Microsoft® Active Directory®
- Microsoft Azure® Active Directory.
- Identity providers that support Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 protocol.
Region — These are geographical locations around the world where the cloud services are available. Availability Domain — These are isolated data centers located within a region. Fault Domain — These are logical data centers within an availability domain. Compartment — These are logical collection of related resources.Which of these are features of OCI compute service? ›
- Resource Manager. Easily and reliably deploy and manage OCI resources using Terraform-based infrastructure-as-code.
- DevOps. Streamline your application development, delivery, and operations using CI/CD.
- Container Instances. ...
- Container Engine for Kubernetes (OKE) ...
- Functions. ...
- API Management. ...
- Queue. ...
An Oracle instance consists of three main parts: System Global Area (SGA), Program Global Area (PGA), and background processes. The SGA is a shared memory structure allocated when the instance started up and released when it is shut down.What is Oracle OCI functions? ›
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Functions is a serverless platform that lets developers create, run, and scale applications without managing any infrastructure. Functions integrate with Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, platform services and SaaS applications.Which four are the key features of Oracle integration cloud OIC? ›
- SaaS and On-Premises Integration. SaaS stands for “Software as a Service” and is basically a service that offers an application over the internet, rather than having to install it and manage it yourself. ...
- Data Stream Analytics. ...
- Simplified Automated Design. ...
- Easy Setup.
The three-tier architecture includes: Browser (client-side) Presentation layer (server-side) Business/application layer (server-side)What are the three main components of application architecture layer? ›
- The presentation tier consists of UI components and UI process components that support interaction with the system;
- The business tier is responsible for application logic;
- The persistence tier is responsible for data access.
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) is a platform of cloud services that enable you to build and run a wide range of applications in a highly-available, consistently high-performance environment.What is OCI block storage service? ›
The Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Block Volume service lets you dynamically provision and manage block storage volumes . You can create, attach, connect, and move volumes, as well as change volume performance, as needed, to meet your storage, performance, and application requirements.What is Oracle block storage? ›
Oracle Block Volumes let you store your data on block volumes independently and beyond the lifespan of your compute instance. Oracle Block Volumes can help you manage your block volumes, control data, and achieve the storage configuration your application requires.What is the use of block storage? ›
Block storage is technology that controls data storage and storage devices. It takes any data, like a file or database entry, and divides it into blocks of equal sizes. The block storage system then stores the data block on underlying physical storage in a manner that is optimized for fast access and retrieval.How many types of cloud storage are there? ›
There are three main cloud storage types: object storage, file storage, and block storage. Each offers its own advantages and has its own use cases.
Data can be recorded and stored in three main forms: file storage, block storage and object storage.What is file and block storage? ›
In block storage, data is stored in blocks, whereas, in file storage, data is stored as files in a single piece. A block is not a complete file, so integration is not a property of the block, but in file storage, you can integrate data in different folders.What are the six categories in an Oracle application? ›
- Financial Management.
- Project Management.
- Risk Management and Compliance.
- Enterprise Performance Management.
Currently supported protocols include: TCP. UDP. ICMP.What are the 3 files of physical structure of Oracle database? ›
Three basic components are required for the recovery of Oracle Database: Data files. Redo Logs. Control Files.What are the four components of an identity and access management system? ›
- Privileged Account Management (PAM) ...
- Identity Administration. ...
- User Activity Monitoring (UAM) ...
- Access Governance.
The Key Management service is integrated with many OCI services, including Block Volumes, File Storage, Oracle Container Engine for Kubernetes, and Object Storage.What are the main components of identity user management? ›
- Directory services.
- Access management.
- Password administration, including single sign-on.
- Identity authentication.
- User provisioning.
- Compliance auditing.
- Role management.
The three are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).What are the main components of a cloud architecture? ›
- A front-end platform (the client or device used to access the cloud)
- A back-end platform (servers and storage)
- A cloud-based delivery model.
- A network.
According to the company's website, there are nine different software modules that make up the Oracle Cloud ERP suite, namely: Financials.What are the attributes of Oracle cloud infrastructure compartments? ›
Compartments are a powerful feature in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) for security isolation and access control. They accomplish that by providing a global logical namespace where policies can be enforced, as folders in a file system. By being global, they stretch out to all OCI regions within a given tenancy.Which three types of processors are available for compute service? ›
Standard shapes are available with Intel, AMD, and Arm-based processors.Which four types of images can be used in Oracle cloud infrastructure? ›
x86 shapes, Arm-based shapes, and GPU shapes are supported with this image. The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel (UEK) is Oracle's optimized operating system kernel for demanding Oracle workloads. x86 shapes, Arm-based shapes, and GPU shapes are supported with this image.What are the 4 main objects of a database? ›
While Microsoft Access is made up of seven components, this text will focus on the main objects: tables, forms, queries and reports. Together, these objects allow users to enter, store, analyze and compile data in various ways.What are the 4 main objects of a database explain? ›
Databases in Access are composed of four objects: tables, queries, forms, and reports.What are the five 5 major components of a database explain each components? ›
- Database Access Language.
There are two types of functions in Oracle. 1) Single Row Functions: Single row or Scalar functions return a value for every row that is processed in a query. 2) Group Functions: These functions group the rows of data based on the values returned by the query.What is Oracle full details? ›
It is also called OracleDB, or simply Oracle. It is produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. It was created in 1977 by Lawrence Ellison and other engineers. It is one of the most popular relational database engines in the IT market for storing, organizing, and retrieving data.What are the types of functions in Oracle? ›
- About SQL Functions.
- Single-Row Functions. Numeric Functions. Character Functions Returning Character Values. Character Functions Returning Number Values. Character Set Functions. ...
- Aggregate Functions.
- Analytic Functions.
- Object Reference Functions.
- Model Functions.
- OLAP Functions.
- Data Cartridge Functions.
- Datafiles. Every Oracle database has one or more physical datafiles. ...
- Control Files. Every Oracle database has a control file. ...
- Redo Log Files. Every Oracle database has a set of two or more redo log files. ...
- Archive Log Files. ...
- Parameter Files. ...
- Alert and Trace Log Files. ...
- Backup Files.
Components of IAM
In order to find the right cloud integration solution for your business, consider the following requirements: It must connect data and applications in real-time. It must access, cleanse, transform, and share data. It must manage and distribute from all data storage options no matter the size or speed.Which statement is true about Oracle Cloud infrastructure OCI Object Storage Support for server side encryption? ›
Yes. Oracle Object Storage supports server-side encryption. All data stored in Oracle Object Storage is automatically encrypted. Customers can also use Server-Side Encryption with Customer-Provided Keys (SSE-C) or a master encryption key from Vault if they choose.Which statement is true about OCI an OCI region is a localized geographic area? ›
A. An OCI region is a localized geographic area, and an availability domain is one or more data centers located within a region.Which two statements are true with regard to the OCI logging service? ›
Which two statements are true with regard to the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Logging service? It enables you to monitor cloud resources using metrics and alarms. It enables you to analyze cloud resources using custom metrics. It is a centralized single pane of glass for all logs in a tenancy.Which statement correctly describes OCI SLA? ›
Answer - B. Ability to manage, monitor and modify OCI resources. Explanation - The correct answer is Option B. Ability to manage, monitor and modify OCI resources.Which three are capabilities of Oracle Cloud infrastructure? ›
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Data Catalog includes capabilities to collaboratively define business terms in rich text form, categorize them appropriately, and build a hierarchy to organize this vocabulary.Which three types of database systems are available in Oracle Cloud infrastructure OCI )? ›
Oracle offers the following managed database services running in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure: Oracle Exadata Cloud Service. Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Database. Oracle Database Cloud Service.Which three protocols does Oracle Cloud infrastructure support? ›
Currently supported protocols include: TCP. UDP. ICMP.
Factors That Impact Pricing:
Resource size: If resources are more then cost should be high. Data transfer: No incoming(ingress) cost / careful with outgoing(Egress) cost. Resource: What type of resources are you using like VMs v/s BMs. OCI regions have the same prices.
There is a total of 26 Region now (i.e. London, Sao Paulo, Frankfurt, Ashburn, Phoenix, Canada Tokyo, Seoul, Mumbai, Dubai, Zurich, Sydney, Osaka, Melbourne, Jeddah, Amsterdam, Montreal, Hyderabad, Chuncheon, San Jose, Newport, Santiago, Vinhedo, Jerusalem, Marseille & Singapore).Which three components are the part of OCI identity and access management service? ›
Components of IAM
Logs generated for the Logging enabled OCI services are stored in an OSS bucket created inside the compartment selected during the Log Group Creation. The same logs can be downloaded or can be ingested using a third party log analytic tools if required.Which three types of logs are supported by the OCI Logging service? ›
- Audit logs: Logs related to events emitted by the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Audit service. ...
- Service logs: Emitted by OCI native services, such as API Gateway, Events, Functions, Load Balancer, Object Storage, and VCN Flow Logs.
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) offers IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, and Data as a Service (DaaS) capabilities in a single, comprehensive platform.What are the 4 aspects of SLA? ›
- Overall objectives. The SLA should set out the overall objectives for the services to be provided. ...
- Description of the Services. The SLA should include a detailed description of the services. ...
- Performance Standards. ...
- Compensation/Service Credits. ...
- Critical Failure.
The Oracle Cloud Infrastructure OS Management service allows you to manage and monitor updates and patches for the operating system environments on your Oracle Cloud instances, including instances managed by the OS Management Oracle Autonomous Linux service.